MSW 365

MSW-365
MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

INTRODUCTION
Average Generation of MSW (Municipal Solid Waste): 0.41–0.52 kg/person/ day. 
Every year it is increasing. Urban population is also increasing every day.
Hence it is an alarming situation, which needs a serious thought. The rapid urbanization and industrialization
Mainly, the following types of management practices are in vogue. 
• Sanitary landfill,
• Incineration 
• Gasification 
• Anaerobic digestion 
• Other types. 

All the above technologies have merits and demerits. 
The choice of technology has to be made based on the waste, quality, and local conditions. 
The best compromise would be to choose the technology based on 
• Generation of higher power with less waste, 
• Least land need
• Low air pollution 
• Low land pollution,
• Lowest life cycle cost, 
• Scope for maximum volume reduction.
• 
Sanitary Land Fills: 
Owing to the
• Exhaust of present dump yards
• Need to vacate existing dump yards based on the increase in the incumbency of the surrounding areas 
• Non Availability of New Dump Areas with less leas distance
this method is posing lot of administrative and technical problems.

Incineration: 
needs larger power. Costlier,

Biomethanation using MSW-365:
Here the biodegradable organic matter (This fraction will be around 40% of Total MSW) obtained after a mechanical segration of the total MSW and after Particle size reduction; is digested by functional Microbes either in specially designed digesters (Anaerobic) or in isolated open yards (Aerobic).
These specifically designed microbial products degrade the organic matter such as kitchen waste, vegetable market waste, paper, grass cutting, and yard trimmings (Preferably hydrolyzed Or added with sufficient water or Municipal Sewage Water periodically to monitor a moisture range of about 14%) and during this process the combustible gas methane CH4, and inert gas carbon dioxide CO2 are produced.
The digestion is usually allowed for 20–30 days.
The CH4 gas can be used to produce power through a biogas engine connected to electric generator. 
The remaining digestate (slurry) is a soil conditioner of good quality and free from pathogens. 
With the help of a solid/liquid separator, 
Organic fertilizer (fit for use after removal of undesired materials such as glass and metals) is obtained and 
The treated water can be safely used for irrigation.

SALIENT FEATURES OF MSW 365
1. Absorption of the nutrients is enhanced
2. Comparatively more cost effective from the point of view of life cycle cost.
3. Comparatively much less need of land.
4. Drastic reduction of pathogens is achieved.
5. Environment-friendly 
6. No problem of Fly and Maggot
7. No problem of odour.
8. No release of greenhouse gases to environment.
9. Relatively good looking 
10. Reliable 
11. Toxic materials are biodegraded
12. Useful products such as biogas and compost are obtained.

SUGGESTED LEVEL OF USAGE:
For Every 1 MT of the biodegradable organic matter obtained after a mechanical segration of the total MSW and after Particle size reduction; 
1. Add 200g MSW-365 for Open Dumps (Aerobic Process) or 250g MSW-365 for Closed reactors (Anarobic Process)
2. Add 1 Kg Jaggery
3. Add Sufficient water or Municipal Sewage Water to monitor a moisture range of about 14% (throughout the treatment period of about 20-30 Days)
4. Blend the whole mass 
5. Keep in Closed Reactors or Open Dumps. Heap size may be maintained upto 2.5 m.
But Batch wise only.

SHELF LIFE:
Two years from the date of Mfg.

References
• Bhide A D and Sunderesan B B. 1983; Processing method for the future solid waste management in developing countries. pp. 124–134;
• IEA (International Energy Agency). 1997; System and market overview of anaerobic
• digester, pp. 1–21; [Anaerobic Digestion Activity]; Paris: IEA
• Parker C and Roberts T (eds.). 1985; Energy from waste – an evaluation of conversion
• Technologies; London: Elsevier Applied Science Publishers. 217 pp.
• Roos K F and Moses M A (eds). 1997; A manual for developing biogas system at commercial
• farms in US; Ag STAR Handbook; Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency [EPA-430-B-97-015]

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