Bio fertilizer


Organic Animal origin Fertilisers generally known as Manures
1. Bone Meal
2. Cow dung
3. Goat and Sheep Manure
4. Pig Litter
5. Poultry litter
6. Vermi Compost
7. Fish Meal
8. Feather Meal

Organic Plant origin Fertilisers 
1. Oil Cakes 
2. Seaweed extracts

Other Fertilisers of importance:
Municipal compost

Natural Mineral phosphatic fertilizers: 
1. Limestone 35-40% Ca
2. Rock Phosphate (RP) 16 - 30% P2O5
3. Sodium nitrate, 

Chemical Nitrogenous Fertilisers:
Nitrogen may be supplied in nitrate, ammonium or amide forms. Each has characteristic advantages and disadvantages but no single form is optimum under all conditions. This provides a rationale for a fertiliser containing multiple forms of nitrogen.
1. Ammoniam Chloride (ACl) 26%N
2. Ammoniam Sulphate (As) 21%N
3. Calcium Ammoniam Nitrate (CAN) 25%N
4. Urea 46%N

Chemical Phosphatic Fertilisers: Di-ammonium Phosphate (DAP) 18 - 46
Single Super Phosphate (SSP) 16% P2O5

Chemical Potassic Fertilisers: Muriate of Potash (MOP) 60%K2O
Sulphate of Potash (SOP) 48%K2O 

Chemical NPK Grades: 
10:26:26, 12:32:16, 14:35:14, 15:15:15, 16:20:00, 17:17:17, 19:19:19, 20:20:00, 23:23:00, 28:28:00
The mass fraction (percent) nitrogen is reported directly. However, phosphorus is reported as phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5), the anhydride of phosphoric acid, and potassium is reported as potassium oxide (K2O), which is the anhydride of potassium hydroxide

Bio Nitrogenous Fertilisers:
1. Acetobacter for sugarcane and Beetroot only. 
2. Azotobacter/Azospirillum for non legume crops. 
3. Blue –Green Algae (BGA) and Azolla for low land paddy.
4. Rhizobium for legume crops. 

The range of nitrogen fixed by Bio Nitrogenous Fertilisers per ha/year varies from crop to crop; it is 80 - 85 kg for cow pea, 50 - 60 kg for groundnut, 60 - 80 kg for soybean and 50 - 55 kg for moong bean.

Acetobacter spp. fixes atmospheric Nitrogen to plant, helps to increase the sugar content and yield up to 25%, 

Azotobacter are free-living, nitrogen-fixing bacteria and are known to produce several plant growth promoting subustances. In addition to nitrogen fixation by these bacteria, they are also known to protect plants against pathogenic microorganisims either by discouraging their growth or by destroying them.

Azospirillum are nitrogen-fixing bacteria that lives in a symbiotic relationship in the root cortex of several tropical crops. They stimulate plant growth through nitrogen fixation and production of growth subustances like auxins, gibberellins and cytokinin.

Blue Green Algae (BGA) or Cyanobacteria have the ability to carry out both photosynthesis as well as nitrogen fixation.

Rhizobium bacteria, basically form root nodules in leguminous plants and fix atmospheric nitrogen in a symbiotic association. The Rhizobium bacteria gives nitrogen to the plant and the plant gives protection to the bacteria from oxygen damage by harbouring it inside the root nodule.

Next »



Copyright © 2006 Som Phytopharma India Ltd. All Rights Reserved.

a dristi design